363 - Roman Emperor Julian is killed during the retreat from the Sassanid Empire. General Jovian is proclaimed Emperor by the troops on the battlefield.
684 - Benedict II becomes Pope.
1284 - According to legend, the Pied Piper lures 130 children of Hamelin away.
1409 - Western Schism: The Catholic church is led into a double schism as Petros Philargos is crowned Pope Alexander V after the Council of Pisa, joining Pope Gregory XII in Rome and Pope Benedict XII in Avignon.
1483 - Richard III becomes king of England.
1819 - The bicycle is patented.
1934 - President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the Federal Credit Union Act, which establishes credit unions.
1934 - Initial flight of the Focke-Wulf Fw 61, the first practical helicopter.
1945 - The United Nations Charter is signed.
1963 - John F. Kennedy speaks the famous words "Ich bin ein Berliner" on a visit to West Berlin.
1964 - The Beatles release the album A Hard Day's Night.
1974 - The first retail product (a pack of chewing gum) was sold using a barcode reader.
1975 - Indira Gandhi establishes authoritarian rule in India.
1977 - Elvis Presley gives his last concert.
1979 - Muhammad Ali retires.
1993 - The U.S. launches a missile attack targeting Baghdad intelligence headquarters in retaliation for a thwarted assassination attempt against former President George H.W. Bush in April in Kuwait.
1997 - The U.S. Supreme Court rules that the Communications Decency Act violates the First Amendment.
1997 - Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone in the U.S.), the first book in J.K. Rowling's hugely popular Harry Potter series, is published.
2003 - The U.S. Supreme Court rules that gender-based sodomy laws are unconstitutional in Lawrence v. Texas.
1689 - Edward Holyoke, American President of Harvard University (d. 1769)
1694 - Georg Brandt, Swedish chemist and minerologist (d. 1768)
1703 - Thomas Clap, first president of Yale University (d. 1767)
1824 - Lord Kelvin, Irish-born physicist (d. 1907)
1892 - Pearl S. Buck, American writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1973)
1898 - Willy Messerschmitt, German aircraft designer (d. 1978)
1899 - Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna of Russia (d. 1918)
1904 - Peter Lorre, Hungarian-born actor (d. 1964)
1909 - Colonel Tom Parker, Elvis Presley's manager (d. 1997)
1911 - Babe Didrikson Zaharias, American athlete and golfer (d. 1956)
1937 - Robert Coleman Richardson, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate
1942 - Gilberto Gil, singer, songwriter, and first Minister of Culture of Brazil
1945 - Dwight York, American cult leader and convicted child molester
1955 - Mick Jones, British guitarist (The Clash and Big Audio Dynamite)
1956 - Chris Isaak, American singer
1970 - Chris O'Donnell, American actor
1974 - Derek Jeter, American baseball player
1976 - Chad Pennington, American football player
1977 - Michael Thomas Dunn, American actor and filmmaker
1977 - Kubo Tite, Japanese cartoonist
2005 - Princess Alexia of the Netherlands
363 - Julian the Apostate, Roman Emperor (killed in battle)
1291 - Eleanor of Provence, queen of Henry III of England
1541 - Francisco Pizarro, Spanish conqueror of Peru (murdered)
1688 - Ralph Cudworth, English philosopher (b. 1617)
1784 - Caesar Rodney, American lawyer and signer of the Declaration of Independence (b. 1728)
1922 - Albert I, Prince of Monaco (b. 1848)
1943 - Karl Landsteiner, Austrian biologist and physician, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. 1868)
1984 - Michel Foucault, French literary theorist (b. 1926)
2002 - Arnold Brown, the 11th General of The Salvation Army (b. 1913)
2003 - Strom Thurmond, U.S. Senator (b. 1902)
2003 - Dennis Thatcher MBE, husband of Margaret Thatcher (b. 1915)
Holidays and observances
The United Nations' Day in Support of Victims of Torture.
Flag Day in Romania
Sunthorn Phu Day in Thailand.